Nature and Scope of Criminology in 2023

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Criminology is an interdisciplinary science. It involves behavioral and biological sciences such as Anthropology, Biology, Sociology, Psychology, Economics, Psychiatry, and Political science. It also includes the police sciences such as Criminal law, public administration, victimology, ethics, and penology.

Criminology is the entire body of knowledge regarding the causes and prevention of crime. It also deals with the punishment of a certain crime committed. Criminology focuses on the reasons and operational forces behind the commission of a particular crime.

The main focus of criminology is the study of human behavior.


The term Criminology is derived from an Italian Professor of law “Raffaele Garofalo” as Criminologia. After that, a French Anthropologist “Paul Topinard” used the analogous French term Criminologie.


There is no universally accepted definition of criminology. However,

According to Law Lexicon

“Criminology is the study of crime, its nature, its causes, its detection, and prevention.”

According to Dr. Kenny

“Criminology is the branch of criminal science that deals with the causes of crime, analysis, and prevention of crime.”

Main Purpose of Criminology

The main purpose of criminology is to know different aspects and causes of crime. These will help in the treatment and rehabilitation of criminals again in society.

Nature of Criminology

Criminology is an interdisciplinary field of study, involving scholars and practitioners. It represents a wide range of behavioral and social sciences as well as natural sciences.

It deals with the research of sociologists, psychologists, and writings in law.   

Scope of Criminology

The word scope means the maximum extent to which a certain field is applicable or has influence.


1. It is the study of the origin and development of criminal laws.

 Criminology studies how criminal laws are evolved under different circumstances. It also presents certain types of punishments to prevent crime.

2. It analyses the causation of crime and the personality of the criminals.

In criminology, we study the reasons for criminal behavior and when and how a man turns into a criminal. We study the subject that why some people commit crimes while others do not commit crimes.

3. It helps us in the detection and investigation of crime.

 Criminology is modern science that helps us a lot to detect and investigate the reasons behind the crime.

4. It is the study of different factors behind the crime.

Criminology also studies various factors that enhance a crime such as Criminal Sociology, Criminal Psychiatry, Victimology, Criminal Ecology, Criminal Demography, and Criminal Physical Anthropology.

5. It studies the reasons for the development of criminals.

After discovering the origin of crime, criminologists study the factors due to which people develop a criminal attitude.

6. It tells us the ways to arrest and apprehend criminals

Criminology tells us various ways to arrest and treat habitual criminals as well. 

7. It helps us to understand the criminal behavior and the etiology

Understanding the behavior and psychology of criminals is of great importance. So, criminology helps a lot in this noble job.

8. It studies the methods adopted by the criminals to commit crimes

Criminology studies various methods and measures which are adopted by the offenders for the violation of criminal laws.

9. It looks at the reaction of society regarding crime.

After the commission of a crime, criminology as science looks upon the rection of society towards the offender or the crime committed. The purpose is to get the views of society about the crime.

10. It helps us in the prevention of crime

Criminology presents various methods to prevent crime. It plans different ways to deter criminals. In this way, they are threatened to commit crimes because they know that they will be punished if they were found accused of any criminal activity.

11. It develops the concept of rehabilitation

Criminology encourages us to establish rehabilitation centers in the country so that the criminals must be treated in a fine and healthy way. In this way, they may become responsible men in society.


Criminology is the scientific study of nature, extent, causes, consequences, and prevention of criminal behavior on the individual as well as social levels.

Criminology is rewarding and a fascinating field due to its broad scope and importance.

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