Allama Ibn-e-Khaldun was born in Tunis. He learned The Holy Quran, and Hadees, and got the knowledge of Fiqh by heart and devotion. He is known for his contributions to the history of the cultural life of Barber Tribes.
Founder of Ilmul-Imran
Allama Ibn-e-Khaldun laid the foundation of a new science called Ilmul-Imran. This science served as the foundation of Sociology. That is why he was known as The Father of Modern Sociology.
Ibn-e-Khaldun included the method of logic in his famous book Mokadima. He devised various methods for the study of the relationship between historical events and facts.
He said that there is a close relationship between historical, political, and social events. If one event is a cause then the other event will be the effect.
Thus, the cause and effect relationship leads to the method of logic.
The contributions of Ibn-e-Khaldun in the sociological theory are the following.
1. Theory of Al-Asabiya
Ibn-e-Khaldun is the inventor of the concept of Al-Asabiya. It is a force that keeps people united. People join their minds and forces among themselves that lead to Al-Asabiya.
According to Ibn-e-Khaldun,
“Al-Asabiya is a collection of emotions of similarity among the people of a particular group that keep them unitedwith each other while having a common effective goal.”
He further says,
“Society is built and broken only due to the force of Al-Asabiya.”
Importance of Al-Asabiya
When the force of solidarity is created, the group of individuals becomes an invincible force. This force remains dominant upon others and no force can subjugate it.
Al-Asabiya creates a spirit of cohesion
Ibn-e-Khaldun believed that Al-Asabiya creates a spirit of cohesion among the individuals. The emotions of similarity unite them together into tribes and ultimately into a society.
he says that the tribes, societies, and nations have become successful only due to the force of Al-Asabiya. No tribe can face its enemies without the force of Al-Asabiya. Asa long as the force of Al-Asabiya exists in a nation, no one can snatch the government from that nation.
Role of religious movements
In his book, Mokadima, he says that religious movements play an important role in sharpening the force of Al-Asabiya. He further says that no movement can succeed without the force of Al-Asabiya.
It means that it is very easy to overcome a country where the force of Al-Asabiya is weak.
Emphasis on Al-Asabiya
Ibn-e-Khaldun laid great emphasis on Al-Asabiya saying that an individual cannot live separately in society. He has to get help from some other people in various matters while living in society.
For this purpose, an organization is developed. This organization fulfilled the needs of people.
Man is from animal to human
He says that man is an animal but he turns into a human being through the process of learning from his society. For example, he learns from social organizations and gets justice from the government.
A man cannot be forced to do something against his will.
Al-Asabiya on a large scale
Ibn-Khaldoon says that powerful and extensive states come into existence when cooperation is found among the people on a large scale.
It means that for the establishment of a powerful state, the force of Al-Asabiya must be found among the members of that particular society.
2. Theory of Rural and Urban Society
Ibn-e-Khaldun worked much on human society. He says that human society supersedes animal society. The reasons for this argument are
- Men have wisdom
- They need a supreme governer
- They search for the means of livelihood
- They live together for the development of the state
Due to these reasons, man prefers to live a social life in society to fulfill his needs. While on the other hand, the animals lack these traits.
Types of Societies
The societies are divided into two categories by Ibn-e-Khaldun.
1. Rural (Badvi)
2. Urban (Hazri)
1. Rural Societies (Badvi Asabiya)
He says that there is more Asabiya among the individuals of rural society. These people are strong and brave. Great physical force is present among them.
Here, the interaction is more among the individuals and they are more dependent on one another.
2. Urban Societies (Hazri Asabiya)
A weak force of Al-Asabiya is found among the members of urban society. The reason is that there is no
interaction among the individuals and they are less dependent on one another.
The people in the urban society lead a luxurious life and they don’t care for others.
3. Theory of Social Change
According to Ibn-e-Khaldun, human society is ever-changing. This change is only due to the force of Al-Asabiya.
He says that a tribe that is in power may become weak with other changes occurring in the society i.e. The
powerful tribes may raid those tribes that are out of power and may take control of their government.
Ibn-e-Khaldun expressed his views about Al-Asabiyq after careful thinking. He says
“Al-Asabiya takes about 40 years to fully develop among the individuals. Then, this force becomes weak in the next 40 years to such extent that the society declines.”
Principles of social change
The principles of social change are the following;
- The physical boundary of the state should be in control
- The physical age of a state is 120 years
- The rise and fall of nations is turned by turn
Reasons for the fall of a tribe
The reasons for the fall of a tribe are the following;
- If the force of Asabiya becomes weak among the individuals
- If the individuals become careless about their religion
Ibn-e-Khaldun contributed a lot to sociological theory. He developed a new science Ilmul-Imran. This name was later modified as Imraniyat.