Crime is an unlawful activity that is committed by a person against the interests of the public or society. The person who commits the crime is liable to punishment by law according to the nature of the crime committed. Hence, crime is an unlawful act that is harmful to society and also to its inhabitants.
Section 11, 44, 189, 190, and 385 of the PPC 1860 deal with crime.
What does Crime actually mean?
Literally, Crime means all the activities that involve the breaking of the law.
Legally, Crime means all the offenses which are punishable by the law.
In Pakistan, Crime means an act punishable by the Pakistan Penal Code, PPC.
Crime is generally defined as
“An action or omission which contains an offense and is punishable by law.”
According to Sir James Stephen
“Crime is an act which is prohibited by the Law of Land as well as by the Moral Values of the society.”
13 Most Common Causes of Crime
Crime somehow originated from society and society is responsible for the commission of the crime to some extent. However, the causes of crime are discussed in detail below.
Illiteracy is one of the major factors that instigate an individual to commit a crime.
The literacy rate of developing countries is very low. The young students cannot get jobs on time due to which they are attracted to crime.
2. Faulty Educational System
Unluckily, the educational system that provides the base for the development of any country, is not fulfilling its duties.
The current educational system is unable to impart good values to the students such as having a good character and morality which is a core force to maintain a continuous check on crime.
The employment opportunities are not enough in our country. Due to the absence of employment opportunities, young people cannot get jobs, and their interest is automatically diverted toward criminal activities.
Poverty is the state where one lacks a socially acceptable amount of money. Poverty exists in a society when people lack the means to satisfy their basic needs.
The needy people must not be neglected by the Government and a proper solution must be practiced for the distribution of wealth among the people in order to eliminate poverty.
It will not be wrong to say that it is the root cause of many crimes directly or indirectly.
Poverty results in prostitution, adopting illegal means, dacoity, robbery, extortion, corruption, and also committing suicide.
A lot of people commit crimes only due to hunger. Such people mostly steal food to satisfy their hunger. The problem of hunger is increasing day by day in our society.
For example, in Africa, people were forced to commit crimes due to hunger.
Corruption is becoming a common evil in society as society is becoming more advanced with the advent of time.
Every department is affected by this dangerous virus and this virus is growing its roots very fast. The departments which are most affected by corruption are Police Department and Revenue Department.
7. Inequality Before law
It is mostly observed in society that the people are not equally treated by the law. The powerful people are given privileges and they are treated above the law. On the other hand, the poor and weak people are forced to obey the law, and often they are punished even if they are not criminals.
The powerful people are not fearful of the law and they commit crimes freely. There is no one to stop or prohibit them. This is one of the main reasons for the commission of the crime.
8. Absence of Rule of Law
It is a famous quote;
“Where there is no rule of law, there is no justice.”
Actually, the rule of law does not prevail in our society. The reason is that rich people are inactive.
9. Absence of Proper Police System
The basic purpose of the police is to provide safety to the public against crime and to maintain peace in society. But in our society, the situation is totally opposite.
Mostly the police threats the victim from taking any legal action and go in favor of the offender.
Thana Culture exists in society and the police do not perform their function as it is expected. So, People find it easy to commit crimes due to the weak police system.
10. Discrimination in Society
Discrimination is found in society on the basis of race, gender, and color. Still, in the 21st century, capitalism and feudalism exist in the country giving rise to long-term discrimination among the rich and poor people.
As a result, people commit crimes to satisfy their interests.
11. Lack of Health Facilities
Better health facilities are not available in our country as compared to other developed countries. The patient dies in the hospital due to the lack of better hospitalization. The heirs of the patient become mentally pressured and grow a spirit of revenge. In consequence, they commit crimes.
12. Lack of Guidance for Teenagers
Young people are really the backbone of society. The reason is that they have energy, power, and enthusiasm at peak levels. There must be a system of proper guidance for the teenagers so that they may use their energy in the right place.
Unfortunately, young people are not guided on the right path and they mostly get into severe crimes such as kidnapping, robbery, drug abuse, and smuggling.
All this is due to the absence of a proper system to guide young people.
13. Role of Media
Though media has benefitted the world a lot its harmful effects also go side by side.
In the commission of a crime, media has also played a unique role. The unethical and violent films are cast upon the DISH and CABLE networks. Young people are greatly influenced by this unethical content. The young people practice what they have seen in the bad films and commit crimes.
Read More: Crime As A Social Problem
15 Ways of Prevention of Crime
Prevention of crime means trying to prevent the commission of a crime and threaten the criminals from committing crimes.
Governmental authorities can play an important role in the prevention of crime. Various steps can be adopted for this purpose.
Why Prevent Crime?
A society is based on some specific patterns. Crimes disturb these established patterns of society. So, there is a need to prevent crime.
How We Can Prevent Crime?
Crime can be prevented by various methods. They are discussed below.
1. By making Judiciary independent
2. By establishing the Rule of law
3. By proper distribution of lands
4. By creating healthy recreational opportunities
5. By improving Parent’s Character
6. By eliminating Illiteracy
7. By providing jobs on merit
8. By reducing Poverty
9. By making a proper court system
10. Having a proper police system
11. By improving social welfare institutions
12. The reformation of educational institutions
13. By proper distribution of resources
14. The reformation of the prison system
15. By imposing a juvenile justice system
Crime is the violation of the rights of one person by another person. While the prevention of crime is the attempt to reduce the crime and to threaten the criminals from committing crimes.
Crime is prevented by adopting various methods.